Settlement of Sēlija forest brothers in Sūpe bog


Sūpe swamp is connected with the places of guerrilla settlements and fighting, which have developed in the interaction of people and places. This is described in the ballad of the Latvian exile Albert Eglītis about the events in his homeland in Sūpe mire "Moss and mud" - a tribute to the partisans of Sūpe mire:

„“ In 1945, glowing in the swamp

On Pokļevinska's birthday, Lieljānis shares dinner:

Willow fermented beer,

Romulan cult butter,

Dry mother's cumin bread

Dried ham,

And Stucka onions,

Long cheese.

Rooms in resinous walls

Dun lightning struck hearts,

And eleven souls

Ground roots… .. ”

This interpretation of the past with the post-World War II events included human testimony, the expression of the spirit, and a system of values. It is a reminder of the popular support given to the national partisans, who could not be so easily defeated by the occupying power. After the deportations of the population on March 25, 1949, the supply system of the national partisans was destroyed. From the summer of 1949 to the middle of 1952, the Sēlija national partisan resistance movement was in decline around Aknīste, Biržai, Elkšņu Gārsene, Sauka, Susēja and Viesīte. The defeat came from ethnic cleansing and from regular army and security service activities.

The Indan-Gravelson settlement, with such a serious system of protection, no longer existed anywhere else in Latvia in the 1950s, including Lithuania, the southern neighbor of Selia. The Indan-Gravelson group bunker in the Elkšņi forest in the winter period of 1949-1950 is characterized by a unique fortress at that time. With specially designed circle protection grooves and weapon sockets. Family members could not be separated, and the responsibility for their safety was taken primarily by men who had gained military experience, as well as by the women themselves, who were not afraid to take up arms. Their purpose in the event of danger was to repel the attacker. This special identity, which manifested itself in the final stages of the war, is characterized by the involvement of family members, who escaped repression. It was also manifested in psychological preparation, and the fateful outcome was no longer a surprise. The Indan-Gravelson group was well aware of its hopeless situation and was ready to fight to the death.

Indan-Gravelson Joint National Partisan Group:

Group leader Jānis Indāns, Pēteris Indāns, Kristīne Indāne, Milda Ārija Indāne, Vasilijs Sokolovs, Jānis Ķepiņš, Hilda Deputy, Artūrs Snikus, Alma Grāvelsone, Second group leader Jānis Edvards Grāvelsons, Jonas Žukauskas.

Oral testimony

Partisan liaison Jānis Snikus: “Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis showed the common partisan grave and said that he had pulled my brother Artūrs Snikas to the top of the grave, placing his head towards the north. Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis claimed that the partisans had given their heads too cheaply, because they had to leave the bunker only when it got dark, then break through. A wreath was placed on the partisan common grave. Together with Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis, we hurriedly buried the partisan Voldemārs Sātnieks, who had been left as buried in the forest as possible. ”

Vilma Birša (Saulīte): “1950. In the spring of 2006, before capturing, Mārtiņš Pokļevinski and I were watching the Indan-Gravelson bunker, and we found a partisan burial ground not far from the bunker. Pokļevinskis tried to turn the fallen to see with a long card, I could clearly see the Indans, Snikus Artūrs and Mildiņš. I couldn't watch any more because it was all unbearably heavy. Soldiers' hats were thrown at the scene of the battle. You could see the places where the troops were disguised as spruce branches and waiting for the partisans to leave the bunker. ”

Jānis Plāns: “I was working at the Viesīte railway station on a train and on that date I had to drive to load timber at the 22nd kilometer of the Elkšņi branch. As we approached the 14th kilometer, we were stopped by an army order because the shooting had started. ” After the shooting, Jānis Plānis was ordered: “ложись” - to lie down. Jānis Plānis executes the order and lies on the train platform. As the train passed the firing range, he could see soldiers in white camouflage clothes behind each tree. When approaching 22 kilometers, even more intense firing resumed. "When we put the timber back on the train, the shooting was over, but the whole forest was still surrounded." After these events in the summer month at the 14th kilometer, when they loaded timber together with the driver, Jānis Plāns went to see the scene. Arriving at the bunker, you could see such a small hill, small Christmas trees growing around it. The bunker had remained intact with all the trenches, entering the bunker it was empty, the ceiling was not high, but the body could be straightened. Inside the bunker, Jānis Plāns remembers that there was a table and in front of the entrance you could see the benches on two floors. There is a sauna with a stone hearth 10 meters from the bunker.

Hilda Miezīte (Deputy): “The attack took place in the morning, there was still a little snow. It was a betrayal and it was a ranger. ” Hilda Miezīte remembered that she could hear the roar of cars all around, and additional forces had come. Hilda doesn't understand how she survived because the bullets went from all sides. She thought they left the bunker because they would not be able to hold on, grenades were thrown and loudspeakers were heard. The settlement would be destroyed one way or another. While living in the forest, no one was allowed to leave the settlement, strict discipline prevailed, and nicknames existed in order not to reveal their identity. The men have changed regularly in the guard post. The roof of the bunker was built of round logs, it was low with a small elevation, covered with earth, sod and moss. On the entrance side, a small elevation with a slight slope to the opposite side. To the right of the entrance door was a small window. There were benches in the bunker and the stove was in the middle. There were not many things, household items - clothes for some as much as on the back. A phonograph with vinyl records was played in the premises of the settlement, which was sometimes listened to quietly.

Šią istoriją užrašė: Haralds Bruņinieks

Susiję objektai

Memorial stone to the Rihards Pārups group of national partisans

It is located on Rīgas Street near the Krustpils Lutheran Church.

On September 22, 1996, a memorial stone to Rihards Pārups and the group of national partisans led by him was unveiled in Krustpilis. The memorial stone was created by the sculptor Ilgvars Mozulāns, but its creation was financially supported by the speaker of the Saeima, Ilga Kreituse. This event was organized by the board of the National Partisan Association of Latvia.

Rihards Pārupa's national partisans,
who were murdered by the Cheka special group
Rihards Pārups (1914 - 1946 2.VII)

Group commander
Rihards Stulpiņš (1923 - 1946. 2. VII)
Alberts Avotiņš (1912 - 1946. 2. VII)
Eric Juhna (1928. -1946. 2. VII)
Aleksandrs Lācis (1919 - 1946. 2. VII)
Pēteris Lācis (1921 - 1946. 2. VII)
Jānis Ēvalds Zālītis (Āboliņš) (1911 - 1946 2. VII)
Siegfried Bimstein, Theodor Schmidt (... - 1946. 2. VII)
Uldis Šmits (... - 1946. 2. VII)
Pēteris Lazdāns (1926 - 1947. VI)
Eric Konvals (1929 – 1947. VI)
Niklas Ošiņš (1908 – 1954. 12.X) – executed in Riga
Alberts ħiķauka (1911 – 1972. II) – imprisoned in the Mordovian camp

Rihards Pārups was born on June 11, 1914, in "Kakšiš" of Krustpils parish. During the Second World War, he was a sergeant in the anti-tank division of the 15th Latvian Division. Participated in national partisan operations in the vicinity of Jēkabpils and Madonas and was a member of the National Resistance Movement, unit leader in the vicinity of Jēkabpils and Madonas. Rihards Pārups fell in battle with Czech troops on July 2, 1946 in Vietalva parish. Unfortunately, the burial place is unknown. A commemorative plaque has been installed in the Riga Brothers' Cemetery. In the fall of 1945, a group of national partisans, led by R. Pārups, was formed in the Jēkabpils district. During its short existence, it participated in more than twenty armed clashes with units of the then Ministry of the Interior. In the report of Cheka's colonel Kotov to the Riga headquarters, it is stated that the activities of the Soviet authorities in Jēkabpils and Madona districts were effectively paralyzed as a result of the group's activities during this time. The national partisans led by R. Parupa found and destroyed several lists to be sent out, thus saving the lives of many people. The leadership of the Security Committee, unable to destroy the national partisan unit in an open battle, infiltrated into it four people from the Czech special group, who shot ten partisans of the unit, including R. Parup, on the night of July 2, 1945. In 1947, two more were shot near Jaunkalsnava, and in 1951, one member of this unit was shot. After twenty-five years of hard labor in the Mordovia camp, a few days before liberation, the fourteenth partisan of the group led by R. Parupas died.

Memorial to the national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks "Daiņkalni"

Located in "Daiņkalni", Rauna parish, Rauna district (near Smiltene district, Brantu parish "Mežviju" house.

Getting to the memorial site only once a year - on April 16! The road leads through private property.

The memorial site is located on the site of the former “Daiņkalni” and “Graškalni” houses in Rauna Parish, under which a group of national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks (nickname Edgars, 1911-1952) hid in the bunkers created from 1950 to 1952. The group of D.Breiks' national partisans was established in 1948 and until 1950 they lived in "Jaunvieslavēni" of Gatarta parish with the owner Kārlis Lāčs. In 1950, D.Brixis' partisan group was handed over by his own brother Laimonis, so they were forced to move. During the summer they lived in the forests, but the winters were spent in Rauna parish “Daiņkalni” near the forester Artūrs Pērkons (1907-1952) and in the adjacent “Graškalni” bunkers set up under the house.

Since 2002, the memorial site in Daiņkalns has been gradually improved. Memorial events are held every year on April 16 to commemorate the national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks. In April 2003 and 2004, memorial crosses and plaques were erected near the houses of Daiņkalni and Graškalni. In the autumn of 2016 - in the spring of 2017, with the help of local Raunēni people, the memorial site was reconstructed according to the sketch of the architect Z.Butāns, as well as the site of the former bunker was excavated and strengthened.

Battles and memorials of national and Soviet partisans in the Griva forest massif

It is located in the Griva forest massif.
Six objects related to the places of national and Soviet partisan battles are under consideration.
In the forest massif of Griva, there are not only the headquarters of the "Purvsaliņi" national partisans, the White Cross in the bunker of the national partisans and the cross to the commander of the resistance movement Andrejas Roskoš, but also the grave of the Soviet partisan brigade commander Artūrs Balož, a monument on the so-called Maiden Hill, where a Soviet partisan died in 1944 the group of young partisans of the brigade, as well as a monument to the Soviet partisans with a five-pointed star and the engraved words "Let's cover ourselves with needles".

It is also possible to view the objects by going for a ride with a two-wheeler on bicycle route no. 785 - "Rhymes of history in the forests of Griva" (route length 34 km, gravel and forest roads). Map for download.

Memorial place for the commander of the national partisan group Andrejas Roskoš (GPS 56.87399, 27.43524)
In the autumn of 1997, the White Cross was discovered in Lielgrivas forest for the commander of the national partisan group Andrejas Roskoš.

Monument to Artūrs Balodis (GPS 56.872926, 27.478121)
Artūrs Balodis was a Soviet partisan, the commander of special tasks of sub-unit A, which was stationed in the Griva forest massif. Fell in the extensive "combing" carried out by the occupiers of Nazi Germany. The comrades carved the letters AB in the birch tree at the place where he died, so that it would not be forgotten. After the war, local researchers found the marked birch and installed a commemorative plaque in its place.

For all those who fell in the forests of Griva (GPS 56.863280, 27.47975)
This commemorative stone in the Griva forest massif has been installed by VAS "Latvijas valsts meži" in honor of the partisans who fought for their homeland. Next to the memorial stone, there is a map-scheme with indications of the partisans' headquarters and places of interest. There is also a rest area. Nearby is the settlement of the national partisans, 1945-1947.

National partisans settlement (GPS 56.863456, 27.481148)
In this place there were settlements of national partisans who fought against the Soviet occupation. The places of individual bunkers have been preserved, by their visual appearance you can judge how big and what shape the dugouts were. National partisans, resisting the Soviet power, operated in the forests of Griva for several years after the end of the Second World War.

Griva forest memorial ensemble, dugout (GPS 56.860665, 27.490439)
It was built in memory of the Soviet partisans who lived in the forests of Griva. Guerrillas blew up the local railway network and trains to disrupt the supply of ammunition, food, etc. to the Nazi German army. Memorial stones have been placed in places where trenches were dug during the war. In the restored dugout you can feel the atmosphere of wartime.

Girls' hill (GPS 56.858187, 27.521526)
In June 1944, the occupiers of Nazi Germany carried out an extensive "combing" of the Griva forests with the intention of destroying the partisans. The soldiers on the hill of Numerne besieged the economic company, which consisted mostly of young girls, and all of them were shot. Since these tragic events, Numerne hill was renamed Meitenu hill by local residents. A memorial stone has been erected at this location.

Trail and partisan memorial in Stompaki bog

The Stompaki Bog Area is a specially protected nature and NATURA 2000 territory located between the cities of Balvi and Viļaka. The eastern part of the bog features a marked 1.5-kilometre trail that crosses the forest and also a small part of the high bog (wooden footbridges), leading to five islands within the bog where the national partisans had built residential bunkers. Information stands along the edges of the trail tell about the local natural values and historical events. There is a rest area by the trail. Directions from the P35 road will help visitors find the trail. In early March 1945, one of the largest national partisan settlements in the Baltic States was established at the Stompaki Camp. About 350 to 360 people lived here, including 40 to 50 women. Starting from January 1945, national partisans carried out regular attacks on the military personnel of the occupation regime and their supporters. The camp had a bakery, a church bunker and 25 residential bunkers, immersed halfway into the ground, for accommodating 8 to 30 people. The bunker sites are still visible today. The Battle of Stompaki, the largest battle in the history of Latvian national partisan battles, took place here on 2-3 March 1945. The anti-partisan forces consisted of a total of about 483 soldiers, including subunits of the 2nd and 3rd Rifle Battalions of the 143rd Rifle Regiment of the NKVD 5th Rifle Division, the rifle platoon (armed with submachine guns), mortar company, reconnaissance and sapper platoons, as well as the so-called ‘istrebitel’ (destruction) fighters.

Memorial site of national partisans in Sērmūkši

Sērmūkši is home to one of more than a hundred memorials to partisan battles in Latvia. There are more than six hundred partisan battle sites in Latvia. A Latvian national partisan dugout has been built based on historical evidence, and visitors can spend the night in near-authentic conditions with plank beds, lighting provided by kerosene lamps and a heating device similar to the ones used by partisans. Visits must be booked in advance. The fateful moment for the Sērmūkši National Partisan Group came on 29 November 1946 with the deaths of four fighters from the group: Jānis Zīrāks, Reinholds Pētersons, Jānis Pīlands and Anna Zariņa. Alfrēds Suipe survived, endured deportation, returned to Latvia and saw the restoration of a free state. He initiated the idea to establish a memorial site for his fallen companions in Sērmūkši.

Memorial to the bunker of the national partisan group "Jumba"

Located in Ziemera Parish, State Forest Quarter 66.

The memorial site was unveiled on July 10, 2020.
In the second stage of the Latvian national partisan movement, in the middle of 1948, a group of 4 people - Viks Pētersi, Stebers Rolands, Bukāns Ilgmārs and Kangsepa Elvīra separated from J. Bitāna-Liepačs unit in Mālupe-Beja parishes and . The location of the partisans was near the Estonian border, near the Riga-Pskov highway, on a hill in a thoroughly built bunker.
On March 2, 1950, when the Chekists opened the bunker, the partisans hid in a barn made of boulders on the Estonian side of Napke's house. After a long and intense shooting on March 3, 1950, the Chekists managed to set fire to the barn. Ilgmārs Bukāns, Rolands Stebers and Elvira Kangsepa burned down together with their newborn daughter. Peter Wick jumped out of the barn window and hid in the attic of the house, where he was also found and shot. The farm was burned. The bodies of all the fallen partisans were taken to Alūksne. A memorial was erected at the site of the fighters' deaths in the early 1990s. Elvira Kangsep's daughter, born in a burning barn, was given the name Liesma.

Memorial to the fallen soldiers of the Latvian Legion and national partisans

Located in Indrāni Parish, Lubāna New Cemetery.

A memorial place to the fallen soldiers of the Latvian Legion and national partisans can be seen

The memorial was opened on July 25, 1992. The memorial stone was created by Andris Briezis.

At the beginning of the Awakening, in October 1990, Kārlis Doropoļskis, a member of the Helsinki 86 human rights group, received permission from the authorities to resume the joint burial of Latvian legionnaires the cemetery of the brothers, which was arranged in the new cemetery of Lubāna. A total of 26 fallen legionnaires and national partisans were buried in the brothers' cemetery.

Bunker of national partisans – Forest Brothers

The Forest Brothers’ Bunker is located by the Riga-Pskov (A2) highway 76 kilometres from Riga and 11 kilometres from Cēsis. The Latvian national partisans or Forest Brothers were small, armed groups of local residents who fought their independent battles against the occupation regime of the USSR in the territory of Latvia from 1944 to 1956. Forced to hide in the forests, these were people who could not or did not want to live in the Soviet Union. A total of around 20,193 Forest Brothers operated in Latvia. The bunker was formed based on the stories and memories of former Forest Brothers about life in the forests, hiding and fighting for the independent state of Latvia after 1945. The bunker showcases armaments and household items. The personal belongings, weapons and photos of partisans are on display. The guide’s narration is enriched by a video from interviews with Forest Brothers. There is a place for picnic campfires by the bunker. It is possible to pre-order a soup prepared on the fire or enjoy an evening of outdoor cinema by the fire.

Monument to the partisans of the Red Army

Located in the Central Square of Vilakas.

A monument to the partisans of the Red Army 1941-1944 can be viewed. g.

After 1954 materials, 1947 14 partisans of the Red Army were buried here and a typical monument was erected.
The existing sandstone monument was installed in 1962 by sculptor Z. Zvāra.

The monument is very similar to the monument of the Battle of Piņki, which can be seen in the center of Piņki.

During the Second World War, there was a red partisan movement in Latvia, which was formed from the fall of 1941 by fighters sent from the USSR.
Until the beginning of 1943, when the Latvian partisan movement was formed under the leadership of Viļas Samsons, it was not widespread. The largest unit was 10.1944. "Red Arrow" established in Kurzeme.
The goal of the red partisans was the restoration of Soviet power in Latvia.

Olaine History and Art Museum

The exhibit in the Olaine History and Art Museum is about the period of Soviet occupation in Olaine. A World War I exploration route with restored elements of the fortifications has been created in the territory of the museum. On the site, where the World War I Russian Army defence line once was, a Russian soldier-type dugout has been built and a fragment of a shooting tower can be viewed by visitors. A World War I reinforced concrete fortification can be seen in Jaunolaine, at the intersection to Plakanciems. During World War I, active battles were fought between the Russian and German armies in this area. Latvian Riflemen units were involved in intelligence and various other operations. Marshy lands made it difficult to defend, but this was a very important area in Latvian military history. Olaine was formed due to the convenient location between Jelgava and Riga, where Jaunolaine is currently located. The Olaine manor was nearby. The modern day Olaine was built during the Soviet occupation, when industrial companies began their operations there.