Settlement of Sēlija forest brothers in Sūpe bog

Sūpe swamp is connected with the places of guerrilla settlements and fighting, which have developed in the interaction of people and places. This is described in the ballad of the Latvian exile Albert Eglītis about the events in his homeland in Sūpe mire "Moss and mud" - a tribute to the partisans of Sūpe mire:

„“ In 1945, glowing in the swamp

On Pokļevinska's birthday, Lieljānis shares dinner:

Willow fermented beer,

Romulan cult butter,

Dry mother's cumin bread

Dried ham,

And Stucka onions,

Long cheese.

Rooms in resinous walls

Dun lightning struck hearts,

And eleven souls

Ground roots… .. ”

This interpretation of the past with the post-World War II events included human testimony, the expression of the spirit, and a system of values. It is a reminder of the popular support given to the national partisans, who could not be so easily defeated by the occupying power. After the deportations of the population on March 25, 1949, the supply system of the national partisans was destroyed. From the summer of 1949 to the middle of 1952, the Sēlija national partisan resistance movement was in decline around Aknīste, Biržai, Elkšņu Gārsene, Sauka, Susēja and Viesīte. The defeat came from ethnic cleansing and from regular army and security service activities.

The Indan-Gravelson settlement, with such a serious system of protection, no longer existed anywhere else in Latvia in the 1950s, including Lithuania, the southern neighbor of Selia. The Indan-Gravelson group bunker in the Elkšņi forest in the winter period of 1949-1950 is characterized by a unique fortress at that time. With specially designed circle protection grooves and weapon sockets. Family members could not be separated, and the responsibility for their safety was taken primarily by men who had gained military experience, as well as by the women themselves, who were not afraid to take up arms. Their purpose in the event of danger was to repel the attacker. This special identity, which manifested itself in the final stages of the war, is characterized by the involvement of family members, who escaped repression. It was also manifested in psychological preparation, and the fateful outcome was no longer a surprise. The Indan-Gravelson group was well aware of its hopeless situation and was ready to fight to the death.

Indan-Gravelson Joint National Partisan Group:

Group leader Jānis Indāns, Pēteris Indāns, Kristīne Indāne, Milda Ārija Indāne, Vasilijs Sokolovs, Jānis Ķepiņš, Hilda Deputy, Artūrs Snikus, Alma Grāvelsone, Second group leader Jānis Edvards Grāvelsons, Jonas Žukauskas.

Oral testimony

Partisan liaison Jānis Snikus: “Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis showed the common partisan grave and said that he had pulled my brother Artūrs Snikas to the top of the grave, placing his head towards the north. Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis claimed that the partisans had given their heads too cheaply, because they had to leave the bunker only when it got dark, then break through. A wreath was placed on the partisan common grave. Together with Mārtiņš Pokļevinskis, we hurriedly buried the partisan Voldemārs Sātnieks, who had been left as buried in the forest as possible. ”

Vilma Birša (Saulīte): “1950. In the spring of 2006, before capturing, Mārtiņš Pokļevinski and I were watching the Indan-Gravelson bunker, and we found a partisan burial ground not far from the bunker. Pokļevinskis tried to turn the fallen to see with a long card, I could clearly see the Indans, Snikus Artūrs and Mildiņš. I couldn't watch any more because it was all unbearably heavy. Soldiers' hats were thrown at the scene of the battle. You could see the places where the troops were disguised as spruce branches and waiting for the partisans to leave the bunker. ”

Jānis Plāns: “I was working at the Viesīte railway station on a train and on that date I had to drive to load timber at the 22nd kilometer of the Elkšņi branch. As we approached the 14th kilometer, we were stopped by an army order because the shooting had started. ” After the shooting, Jānis Plānis was ordered: “ложись” - to lie down. Jānis Plānis executes the order and lies on the train platform. As the train passed the firing range, he could see soldiers in white camouflage clothes behind each tree. When approaching 22 kilometers, even more intense firing resumed. "When we put the timber back on the train, the shooting was over, but the whole forest was still surrounded." After these events in the summer month at the 14th kilometer, when they loaded timber together with the driver, Jānis Plāns went to see the scene. Arriving at the bunker, you could see such a small hill, small Christmas trees growing around it. The bunker had remained intact with all the trenches, entering the bunker it was empty, the ceiling was not high, but the body could be straightened. Inside the bunker, Jānis Plāns remembers that there was a table and in front of the entrance you could see the benches on two floors. There is a sauna with a stone hearth 10 meters from the bunker.

Hilda Miezīte (Deputy): “The attack took place in the morning, there was still a little snow. It was a betrayal and it was a ranger. ” Hilda Miezīte remembered that she could hear the roar of cars all around, and additional forces had come. Hilda doesn't understand how she survived because the bullets went from all sides. She thought they left the bunker because they would not be able to hold on, grenades were thrown and loudspeakers were heard. The settlement would be destroyed one way or another. While living in the forest, no one was allowed to leave the settlement, strict discipline prevailed, and nicknames existed in order not to reveal their identity. The men have changed regularly in the guard post. The roof of the bunker was built of round logs, it was low with a small elevation, covered with earth, sod and moss. On the entrance side, a small elevation with a slight slope to the opposite side. To the right of the entrance door was a small window. There were benches in the bunker and the stove was in the middle. There were not many things, household items - clothes for some as much as on the back. A phonograph with vinyl records was played in the premises of the settlement, which was sometimes listened to quietly.

Wrote down this story: Haralds Bruņinieks
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Related objects

Piemiņas akmens Riharda Pārupa nacionālo partizānu grupai

Atrodas Rīgas ielā netālu no Krustpils luterāņu baznīcas.

1996. gada 22. septembrī, Krustpilī atklāja piemiņas akmeni Rihardam Pārupam un viņa vadītajai nacionālo partizānu grupai. Piemiņas akmeni veidojis tēlnieks Ilgvars Mozulāns, bet tā tapšanu finansiāli atbalstīja Saeimas priekšsēdētāja Ilga Kreituse. Šo pasākumu organizēja Latvijas Nacionālo partizānu apvienības valde.

Riharda Pārupa nacionālajiem partizāniem,
kurus noslepkavoja čekas specgrupa
Rihards Pārups (1914. – 1946.g. 2.VII)

Grupas komandieris
Rihards Stulpiņš (1923. – 1946. 2. VII)
Alberts Avotiņš (1912. – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Ēriks Juhna (1928. -1946.g. 2. VII)
Aleksandrs Lācis (1919. – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Pēteris Lācis (1921. – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Jānis Ēvalds Zālītis (Āboliņš) (1911. – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Zigfrīds Bimšteins, Teodors Šmits (… – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Uldis Šmits (… – 1946.g. 2. VII)
Pēteris Lazdāns (1926. – 1947.g.  VI)
Ēriks Konvāls (1929 – 1947.g. VI)
Niklāss Ošiņš (1908 – 1954.g. 12.X) – Rīgā izpildīts nāves sods
Alberts Ķiķauka (1911 – 1972. g.II) – nobendēts Mordovijas lēģerī

Rihards Pārups dzimis 1914. gada 11. jūnijā Krustpils pagasta “Kaķīšos”. Otrā pasaules kara laikā bijis 15. latviešu divīzijas prettanku diviziona seržants. Piedalījies nacionālo partizānu operācijās Jēkabpils un Madonas apkaimē un bijis Nacionālās pretošanās kustības dalībnieks, vienības vadītājs Jēkabpils un Madonas apkārtnē.  Rihards Pārups krita kaujā ar čekas karaspēku 1946. gada 2. jūlijā Vietalvas pagastā. Diemžēl apbedīšanas vieta nav zināma. Rīgas Brāļu kapos ir uzstādīta Piemiņas plāksne.  1945. gada rudenī Jēkabpils apriņķī izveidojās nacionālo partizānu grupa, ko vadīja R. Pārups. Savas neilgās pastāvēšanas laikā tā piedalījās vairāk nekā divdesmit bruņotās sadursmēs ar toreizējās Iekšlietu ministrijas vienībām. Čekas pulkveža Kotova ziņojumā Rīgas priekšniecībai teikts, ka padomju varas darbība Jēkabpils un Madonas apriņķos grupas darbības rezultātā šajā laikā faktiski tikusi paralizēta. R. Pārupa vadītie nacionālie partizāni atrada un iznīcināja vairākus izsūtāmo sarakstus, tādējādi izglābdami daudzu cilvēku dzīvības. Drošības komitejas vadība, nespēdama iznīcināt nacionālo partizānu vienību atklātā cīņā, iefiltrēja tajā četrus čekas specgrupas cilvēkus, kuri 1945. gada 2. jūlija naktī nošāva desmit vienības partizānus, tostarp arī R. Pārupu. 1947. gadā pie Jaunkalsnavas tika nošauti vēl divi, bet 1951. gadā — viens šīs vienības dalībnieks. Pēc divdesmit piecu gadu katorgas Mordovijas nometnē dažas dienas pirms atbrīvošanas bojā gāja četrpadsmitais R. Pārupa vadītās grupas partizāns.

Memorial to the national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks "Daiņkalni"

Located in "Daiņkalni", Rauna parish, Rauna district (near Smiltene district, Brantu parish "Mežviju" house.

Getting to the memorial site only once a year - on April 16! The road leads through private property.

The memorial site is located on the site of the former “Daiņkalni” and “Graškalni” houses in Rauna Parish, under which a group of national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks (nickname Edgars, 1911-1952) hid in the bunkers created from 1950 to 1952. The group of D.Breiks' national partisans was established in 1948 and until 1950 they lived in "Jaunvieslavēni" of Gatarta parish with the owner Kārlis Lāčs. In 1950, D.Brixis' partisan group was handed over by his own brother Laimonis, so they were forced to move. During the summer they lived in the forests, but the winters were spent in Rauna parish “Daiņkalni” near the forester Artūrs Pērkons (1907-1952) and in the adjacent “Graškalni” bunkers set up under the house.

Since 2002, the memorial site in Daiņkalns has been gradually improved. Memorial events are held every year on April 16 to commemorate the national partisans led by Dailonis Breiks. In April 2003 and 2004, memorial crosses and plaques were erected near the houses of Daiņkalni and Graškalni. In the autumn of 2016 - in the spring of 2017, with the help of local Raunēni people, the memorial site was reconstructed according to the sketch of the architect Z.Butāns, as well as the site of the former bunker was excavated and strengthened.

Nacionālo un padomju partizānu cīņu un piemiņas vietas Grīvas meža masīvā

Atrodas Grīvas meža masīvā.
Apskatāmi seši objekti, kas saistīti ar nacionālo un padomju partizānu cīņu vietām.
Grīvas mežu masīvā atrodas ne tikai “Purvsaliņu” nacionālo partizānu mītnes, Baltais krusts nacionālo partizānu bunkurā un krusts pretestības kustības komandierim Andrejam Roskošam, bet arī padomju partizānu brigādes komandiera Artūra Baloža kaps, piemineklis tā dēvētajā Meiteņu kalniņā, kurā 1944.  gadā gāja bojā padomju partizānu brigādes jauno partizānu grupa, kā arī monuments padomju partizāniem ar piecstaru zvaigzni un iegravētiem vārdiem “Kaut skujām sevi sedzām”.

Objektus iespējams arī apskatīt dodoties izbraucienā ar divriteni velomaršrutā Nr. 785 - "Vēstures atskaņas Grīvas mežos" (maršruta garums 34 km, grants un meža ceļi). Karte lejupielādei.

Piemiņas vieta nacionālo partizānu grupas komandierim Andrejam Roskošam (GPS 56.87399, 27.43524)
1997. gada rudenī Lielgrīvas mežā atklāts Baltais krusts nacionālo partizānu grupas komandierim Andrejam Roskošam.

Piemineklis Artūram Balodim (GPS 56.872926, 27.478121)
Artūrs Balodis bija padomju partizāns, īpašo uzdevumu komandieris A apakšvienībai, kura mitinājās Grīvas mežu masīvā. Krita apjomīgajā “ķemmēšanā“, ko veica nacistiskās Vācijas okupanti. Kaujasbiedri vietā, kur viņš gāja bojā, bērzā iegrieza burtus AB, lai to neaizmirstu. Pēc kara novadpētnieki iezīmēto bērzu atrada un tai vietā uzstādīja piemiņas plāksni.

Visiem Grīvas mežos kritušajiem (GPS 56.863280, 27.47975)
Šo piemiņas akmeni Grīvas mežu masīvā ir uzstādījuši VAS “Latvijas valsts meži” par godu partizāniem, kuri cīnījās par savu dzimteni. Blakus piemiņas akmenim ir karte-shēma ar partizānu mītņu – apskates objektu norādēm. Ir ierīkota arī atpūtas vieta. Netālu atrodas nacionālo partizānu apmetnes vieta, 1945.-1947.gads.

Nacionālo partizānu apmetnes vieta (GPS 56.863456, 27.481148)
Šai vietā atradās nacionālo partizānu, kuri cīnījās pret padomju okupāciju, apmetnes. Ir saglabājušās atsevišķu bunkuru vietas, pēc kuru vizuālā izskata var spriest, cik lielas un kādas formas bijušas zemnīcas. Nacionālie partizāni, pretojoties padomju varai, Grīvas mežos darbojās vairākus gadus pēc otrā pasaules kara beigām.

Grīvas mežu memoriālais ansamblis, zemnīca (GPS 56.860665, 27.490439)
Uzcelts par piemiņu padomju partizāniem, kuri mitinājās Grīvas mežos. Partizāni spridzināja vietējo dzelceļu tīklu un vilcienu sastāvus, lai traucētu nacistiskā Vācijas armijas munīcijas, pārtikas u.c. piegādei. Vietās, kur kara laikā bija izraktas zemnīcas, ir novietoti piemiņas akmeņi. Atjaunotajā zemnīcā var izjust kara laiku atmosfēru.

Meiteņu kalniņš (GPS 56.858187, 27.521526)
1944. gada jūnijā nacistiskās Vācijas okupanti veica plašu Grīvas mežu “ķemmēšanu“ ar nolūku iznīcināt partizānus. Karavīri uz Numernes kalniņa aplenca saimniecisko rotu, kurā pārsvarā bija jaunas meitenes, un visas tika nošautas. Kopš šiem traģiskajiem notikumiem Numernes kalniņu vietējie iedzīvotāji pārdēvēja par Meiteņu kalniņu. Šajā vietā ir uzstādīts piemiņas akmens.

Trail and partisan memorial in Stompaki bog

The Stompaki Bog Area is a specially protected nature and NATURA 2000 territory located between the cities of Balvi and Viļaka. The eastern part of the bog features a marked 1.5-kilometre trail that crosses the forest and also a small part of the high bog (wooden footbridges), leading to five islands within the bog where the national partisans had built residential bunkers. Information stands along the edges of the trail tell about the local natural values and historical events. There is a rest area by the trail. Directions from the P35 road will help visitors find the trail. In early March 1945, one of the largest national partisan settlements in the Baltic States was established at the Stompaki Camp. About 350 to 360 people lived here, including 40 to 50 women. Starting from January 1945, national partisans carried out regular attacks on the military personnel of the occupation regime and their supporters. The camp had a bakery, a church bunker and 25 residential bunkers, immersed halfway into the ground, for accommodating 8 to 30 people. The bunker sites are still visible today. The Battle of Stompaki, the largest battle in the history of Latvian national partisan battles, took place here on 2-3 March 1945. The anti-partisan forces consisted of a total of about 483 soldiers, including subunits of the 2nd and 3rd Rifle Battalions of the 143rd Rifle Regiment of the NKVD 5th Rifle Division, the rifle platoon (armed with submachine guns), mortar company, reconnaissance and sapper platoons, as well as the so-called ‘istrebitel’ (destruction) fighters.

Memorial site of national partisans in Sērmūkši

Sērmūkši is home to one of more than a hundred memorials to partisan battles in Latvia. There are more than six hundred partisan battle sites in Latvia. A Latvian national partisan dugout has been built based on historical evidence, and visitors can spend the night in near-authentic conditions with plank beds, lighting provided by kerosene lamps and a heating device similar to the ones used by partisans. Visits must be booked in advance. The fateful moment for the Sērmūkši National Partisan Group came on 29 November 1946 with the deaths of four fighters from the group: Jānis Zīrāks, Reinholds Pētersons, Jānis Pīlands and Anna Zariņa. Alfrēds Suipe survived, endured deportation, returned to Latvia and saw the restoration of a free state. He initiated the idea to establish a memorial site for his fallen companions in Sērmūkši.

Memorial to the bunker of the national partisan group "Jumba"

Located in Ziemera Parish, State Forest Quarter 66.

The memorial site was unveiled on July 10, 2020.
In the second stage of the Latvian national partisan movement, in the middle of 1948, a group of 4 people - Viks Pētersi, Stebers Rolands, Bukāns Ilgmārs and Kangsepa Elvīra separated from J. Bitāna-Liepačs unit in Mālupe-Beja parishes and . The location of the partisans was near the Estonian border, near the Riga-Pskov highway, on a hill in a thoroughly built bunker.
On March 2, 1950, when the Chekists opened the bunker, the partisans hid in a barn made of boulders on the Estonian side of Napke's house. After a long and intense shooting on March 3, 1950, the Chekists managed to set fire to the barn. Ilgmārs Bukāns, Rolands Stebers and Elvira Kangsepa burned down together with their newborn daughter. Peter Wick jumped out of the barn window and hid in the attic of the house, where he was also found and shot. The farm was burned. The bodies of all the fallen partisans were taken to Alūksne. A memorial was erected at the site of the fighters' deaths in the early 1990s. Elvira Kangsep's daughter, born in a burning barn, was given the name Liesma.

Memorial to the fallen soldiers of the Latvian Legion and national partisans

Located in Indrāni Parish, Lubāna New Cemetery.

A memorial place to the fallen soldiers of the Latvian Legion and national partisans can be seen

The memorial was opened on July 25, 1992. The memorial stone was created by Andris Briezis.

At the beginning of the Awakening, in October 1990, Kārlis Doropoļskis, a member of the Helsinki 86 human rights group, received permission from the authorities to resume the joint burial of Latvian legionnaires the cemetery of the brothers, which was arranged in the new cemetery of Lubāna. A total of 26 fallen legionnaires and national partisans were buried in the brothers' cemetery.

Bunker of national partisans – Forest Brothers

The Forest Brothers’ Bunker is located by the Riga-Pskov (A2) highway 76 kilometres from Riga and 11 kilometres from Cēsis. The Latvian national partisans or Forest Brothers were small, armed groups of local residents who fought their independent battles against the occupation regime of the USSR in the territory of Latvia from 1944 to 1956. Forced to hide in the forests, these were people who could not or did not want to live in the Soviet Union. A total of around 20,193 Forest Brothers operated in Latvia. The bunker was formed based on the stories and memories of former Forest Brothers about life in the forests, hiding and fighting for the independent state of Latvia after 1945. The bunker showcases armaments and household items. The personal belongings, weapons and photos of partisans are on display. The guide’s narration is enriched by a video from interviews with Forest Brothers. There is a place for picnic campfires by the bunker. It is possible to pre-order a soup prepared on the fire or enjoy an evening of outdoor cinema by the fire.

Piemineklis Sarkanās armijas partizāniem

Atrodas Viļakas pilsētas Centrālajā skvērā.

Apskatāms piemineklis Sarkanās armijas partizāniem 1941.-1944. g.

Pēc 1954.g. materiāliem, 1947.g. šeit apbedīti 14 Sarkanās armijas partizāni un uzstādīts tipveida piemineklis.
Esošais smilšakmens piemineklis uzstādīts 1962.gadā, tēlniece Z. Zvāra.

Piemineklis ļoti līdzīgs Piņķu kaujas piemineklim, kurš apskatāms Piņķu centrā.

Otrā pasaules kara laikā Latvijā pastāvēja sarkano partizānu kustība, ko no 1941. gada rudens veidoja no PSRS iesūtīti kaujinieki.
Līdz 1943. gada sākumam, kad Viļa Samsona vadībā izveidojās Latvijas partizānu kustība, tā nebija plaša. Lielākā vienība bija 10.1944. Kurzemē izveidotā “Sarkanā bulta”.
Sarkano partizānu mērķis bija padomju varas atjaunošana Latvijā.

Olaine History and Art Museum

The exhibit in the Olaine History and Art Museum is about the period of Soviet occupation in Olaine. A World War I exploration route with restored elements of the fortifications has been created in the territory of the museum. On the site, where the World War I Russian Army defence line once was, a Russian soldier-type dugout has been built and a fragment of a shooting tower can be viewed by visitors. A World War I reinforced concrete fortification can be seen in Jaunolaine, at the intersection to Plakanciems. During World War I, active battles were fought between the Russian and German armies in this area. Latvian Riflemen units were involved in intelligence and various other operations. Marshy lands made it difficult to defend, but this was a very important area in Latvian military history. Olaine was formed due to the convenient location between Jelgava and Riga, where Jaunolaine is currently located. The Olaine manor was nearby. The modern day Olaine was built during the Soviet occupation, when industrial companies began their operations there.