Dissident during the occupation of the USSR
IV Sovietų okupacija

A dissident (Latin: dissident - apostate, dissenting) in the broadest sense is a person who has different, contrary views than the existing power or the majority of society. Initially, the word meant people who did not belong to the religion of the country's religion.

In the 1960s, oppositionists in the Soviet Union and other communist countries began to be called dissidents in the West. This new opposition movement arose from the USSR leader N. During the Khrushchev "thaw" period. Dissidents differed from other opposition movements in that they used non-violent fighting methods. Dissidents appealed to the universal values as well as to the rights enshrined in Soviet law but not respected. People were persecuted and repressed for dissidentism, often imprisoned in psychiatric hospitals as "insane". Notable Soviet dissidents were the writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the physicist Andrei Sakharov and others.

The most famous Latvian dissidents during the occupation of Latvia were Gunārs Astra, Ints Cālītis, Eduards Berklavs, Lidija Doroņina-Lasmane, the so-called “French Group”, Knuts Skujenieks, Jurģis Skulme and others.

Daugiau informacijos šaltinių

Category: Dissidents. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Dissidents

Eduards Berklavs. Know and don't forget. http://www.eraksti.lv/autori/eduards_berklavs.html

Biruta Eglīte. Who were you, Gunar Astra? Riga, 1998.

Andris Grūtups. Observators. On the trial of the artist Jurģis Skulme. Riga, 2009.

Knuts Skujenieks, Bruno Javoišs. Cards. A virtual journey through barbed wire. Riga, 2013.

Vilis Seleckis. Dissidents. Life story of Inta Cālītis. Riga, 2020.

Susiję objektai

Museum of the Occupation of Latvia

The museum exhibits the history of Latvia from 1940 to 1991, under the occupation of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ‘House of the Future’ is a reconstruction and expansion project of the Occupation Museum designed by the well-known American Latvian architect Gunārs Birkerts as well as the new exhibit of the museum. The exhibit ‘History of Cheka in Latvia’ was created by the Occupation Museum and it is located in the ‘Corner House’, which is the former USSR State Security Committee (KGB) building. Latvian Occupation Museum was founded in 1993. It tells the long-hidden story of the fate of the Latvian state, nation and land under the occupation of two foreign totalitarian powers from 1940 to 1991. At the end of 2020 the museum had more than 70,000 different historical items (documents, photographs, written, oral and material evidence, objects and memorabilia). Museum specialists have recorded more than 2,400 video testimonials, making it one of the largest collections on occupation in Europe. The events that unfolded in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia clearly show us what the nations had to endure under the two totalitarian regimes.

Exhibition in the KGB Building "History of KGB Operations in Latvia"

The former USSR State Security Committee (commonly known as Cheka) building is open for visitors. Here chekists imprisoned, interrogated and murdered Latvian citizens who were considered opponents by the occupation regime. There is also an exhibit from the Latvian Occupation Museum on the activities of Cheka in Latvia. Guided tours of the prison cells, corridors, basement and courtyard are available. The house was built in 1911 and it is one of the most beautiful buildings in Riga. Called the ‘Corner House’ by the people, it was the scariest symbol of the Soviet occupation regime in Latvia, and also one of the pillars of power of the USSR. Cheka operated from the Corner House during the occupation from 1940 to 1941 and then again from 1945 to 1991. Tens of thousands of Latvians were affected by direct political persecution. The fight against enemies of Soviet rule continued also after World War II. Cheka’s approach towards its operation slightly changed after Stalin’s death. Physical torture was replaced by psychological terror. The majority of Cheka agents were Latvians (52%). Russians were the second largest group – 23.7%. 60.3% of the agents were not members of the Communist Party. 26.9% of the agents had higher education. The system was designed in a way to involve local people and thus have greater control over the society. Staff documents and service records are located in Russia. And these materials have not been made available to Latvian authorities and researchers.

Susijusi istorija

About General Karl Gopper

General K. Goppers (1876-1941) was an outstanding soldier and an outstanding man. He stood out as a successful commander who took over the command of the battalion and regiments, heroically leading his riflemen in battles for the freedom of Latvia during the First World War (1914-1919). He has participated in battles in Tīreļpurvs, Ložmetējkalns, and defended Riga.

"Diary of Occupied Latvia" by local researcher Žanis Skudra

Žanis Skudra donates all his free time to local research, all his vacations to tours of Latvia. This is how materials, photographs were collected, and the "Book of Occupied Latvia Days" was published by the Latvian National Fund in Stockholm under the pseudonym Jānis Dzintars.

On June 7, 1978, Žani Skudra was arrested in Tallinn and in November of the same year, the Supreme Court of Riga sentenced him to twelve years of imprisonment for treason and espionage.